UV Light Benchmarks for Michigan Teachers

Constructing (HS1)

Ask questions that can be investigated empirically.

Key Concepts: Questions often build on existing knowledge.

Real World Contexts: Any in the sections on Using Scientific Knowledge

Constructing (HS2)

Design and conduct scientific investigations.

Key Concepts: Types of scientific knowledge--hypothesis, theory, observation, conclusion, law, data, generalization. Aspects of field research--hypothesis, design, observations, samples, analysis, conclusion. Aspects of experimental research--hypothesis, design, variable, experimental group, control group, prediction, analysis, conclusion. Investigations based on questions about the world.

Real World contexts: Any suggested in Using Scientific Knowledge benchmarks for which students would design and/or conduct investigations.

Constructing (HS5)

Discuss topics in groups making clear presentations restating or summarizing what others have said, asking for clarification or elaboration, taking alternative perspectives and defending a position.

Key Concepts: Logical argument, summary, clarification, elaboration, alternative perspectives.

Real-world contexts: Newspaper or magazine articles discussing a topic of social concern.

Reflecting (HS1)

Justify plans or explanations on a theoretical or empirical basis.

Key concepts: Aspects of logical argument, including evidence, fact, opinion, assumptions, claims, conclusions, observations.

Real-world contexts: Any in the sections on Using Scientific Knowledge.

Heredity (HS3)

Explain how new traits may arise in individuals through changes in genetic material (DNA).

Key Concepts: Genetic changes-variation, new gene combinations, mutation. Natural and human-produced sources of mutation-radiation, chemicals.

Real world contexts: Products of genetic engineering, such as medical advances-insulin, cancer drugs; agricultural related products, such as navel oranges, new flower colors, higher-yield grains; effects of natural and manmade contamination; examples of variations due to new gene combinations, such as hybrid organisms or new plant varieties resulting from multiple sets of genes.

Heredity (MS2)

Describe how heredity and environment may influence/determine characteristics of an organism.

Key concepts: Traits - Inherited, acquired.

Real-world contexts: Data on heredity, such as identical twin studies, effects of introduced toxins, effects of natural selection, effects of controlled selection and breeding.

Cells (HS1)

Explain how multicellular organisms grow based on how cells grow and reproduce.

Key concepts: Specialized functions of cells--respiration, protein synthesis, mitosis, meiosis. Basic molecules for cell growth--simple sugars, amino acids, fatty acids. Basic chemicals, molecules and atoms--water, minerals, carbohydrates, proteins, fats and lipids, nucleic acids; carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. Cells come only from other cells.

Real-world context: The growth of plants and animals.