Genetic Variation Michigan Benchmarks

Heredity (HS1)

Explain how characteristics of living things are passed on from generation to generation.

Key concepts: Traits-dominant, recessive. Genetic material-gene pair, gene combination, gene sorting.

Real-world contexts: Common contexts-inheritance of a human genetic disease/disorder, such as sickle cell anemia; a family tree focused on certain traits; examining animal or plant pedigrees.

Heredity (HS3)

Explain how new traits may arise in individuals through changes in genetic material (DNA).

Key Concepts: Genetic changes-variation, new gene combinations, mutation. Natural and human-produced sources of mutation-radiation and chemicals.

Real world contexts: Products of genetic engineering, such as medical advances-insulin, cancer drugs; agricultural related products, such as navel oranges, new flower colors, higher-yield grains; effects of natural and manmade contamination; examples of variations due to new gene combinations, such as hybrid organisms or new plant varieties resulting from multiple sets of genes.

Cells (HS2)

Compare and contrast ways in which selected cells are specialized to carry out particular life functions.

Key concepts: Classifications of organisms by cell type--plant, animal, bacteria; selected specialized plant and animal cells--red blood cells, white blood cells, muscle cells, nerve cells, root cells, leaf cells, stem cells; cell parts used for classification--organelle, nucleus, cell wall, cell membrane; specialized functions--reproduction, photosynthesis, transport, cell shape.

Real-world contexts: reproduction, growth, response, movement, etc. of animals and plants. Functions of bacteria.

Organization of Living Things (HS4)

Explain how living things maintain a stable internal environment.

Key concepts: Related systems/cells/chemicals--excretory system, endocrine system, circulatory system, hormones, immune response, white blood cell, bacteria, virus. Factors/mechanisms under control--temperature, disease/infection, homeostasis.

Real-world contexts: Mechanisms for maintaining internal stability, such as body temperature, disease control.

Organizations of Living Things (HS5)

Describe technologies used in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, and explain its function in terms of human body processes.

Key concepts: Available technologies--sanitation, adequate food and water supplies, inoculation, antibodies, biochemistry, medicines, organ transplants.

Real-world contexts: Common contexts for these technologies--health maintenance and disease prevention activities, such as exercise and controlled diets; health monitoring activities, such as cholesterol and blood pressure checks and various tests for cancer.

Constructing (HS4)

Gather and synthesize information from books and other sources of information.

Key concepts: Scientific journals, text- and computer-based reference materials.

Real-world contexts: libraries, technical reference books, Internet, computer software.