Michigan Family History Benchmarks

Heredity (HS1)

Explain how characteristics of living things are passed on from generation to generation.

Key concepts: Traits-dominant, recessive. Genetic material-gene pair, gene combination, gene sorting.

Real-world contexts: Common contexts-inheritance of a human genetic disease/disorder, such as sickle cell anemia; a family tree focused on certain traits; examining animal or plant pedigrees.

Heredity (HS2)

Describe how genetic material is passed from parent to young during sexual and asexual reproduction.

Key concepts: Types of cell division--mitosis, meiosis, DNA replication, chromosome. Types of reproduction--sexual, asexual. Genetic variation.

Real-world contexts: Fruit flies, yeast, reproduction by spores, cloning.

Organization of Living Things (HS4)

Explain how living things maintain a stable internal environment.

Key concepts: Related systems/cells/chemicals--excretory system, endocrine system, circulatory system, hormones, immune response, white blood cell, bacteria, virus. Factors/mechanisms under control--temperature, disease/infection, homeostasis.

Real-world contexts: Mechanisms for maintaining internal stability, such as body temperature, disease control.

Organizations of Living Things (HS5)

Describe technologies used in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, and explain its function in terms of human body processes.

Key concepts: Available technologies--sanitation, adequate food and water supplies, inoculation, antibodies, biochemistry, medicines, organ transplants.

Real-world contexts: Common contexts for these technologies--health maintenance and disease prevention activities, such as exercise and controlled diets; health monitoring activities, such as cholesterol and blood pressure checks and various tests for cancer.

Reflecting (HS1)

Justify plans or explanations on a theoretical or empirical basis.

Key concepts: aspects of logical argument, including evidence, fact, opinion, assumptions, claims, conclusions, observations.

Real-world contexts: any in the sections on Using Scientific Knowledge.

Reflecting (HS2)

Describe some general limitations of scientific knowledge.

Key concepts: understanding of the general limits of science and scientific knowledge as constantly developing human enterprises; recognizing that arguments can have emotive, economic, and political dimensions as well as scientific.

Real-world contexts: any in the sections on Using Scientific Knowledge.