Cancer Benchmarks for Michigan Teachers

Heredity (HS3)

Explain how new traits may arise in individuals through changes in genetic material (DNA).

Key Concepts: Genetic changes-variation, new gene combinations, mutation. Natural and human-produced sources of mutation-radiation, chemicals.

Real world contexts: Products of genetic engineering, such as medical advances-insulin, cancer drugs; agricultural related products, such as navel oranges, new flower colors, higher-yield grains; effects of natural and manmade contamination; examples of variations due to new gene combinations, such as hybrid organisms or new plant varieties resulting from multiple sets of genes.

Cells (HS1)

Explain how multicellular organisms grow, based on how cells grow and reproduce.

Key concepts: Specialized functions of cells--respiration, protein synthesis, mitosis, meiosis. Basic molecules for cell growth--simple sugars, amino acids, fatty acids. Basic chemicals, molecules and atoms--water, minerals, carbohydrates, proteins, fats and lipids, nucleic acids; carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. Cells come only from other cells.

Real-world context: The growth of plants and animals.

Organization of Living Things (HS4)

Explain how living things maintain a stable internal environment.

Key concepts: Related systems/cells/chemicals--excretory system, endocrine system, circulatory system, hormones, immune response, white blood cell, bacteria, virus. Factors/mechanisms under control--temperature, disease/infection, homeostasis.

Real-world contexts: Mechanisms for maintaining internal stability, such as body temperature, disease control.

Constructing (HS1)

Ask questions that can be investigated empirically.

Key Concepts: questions often build on existing knowledge.

Real World Contexts: any in the sections on Using Scientific Knowledge

Constructing (HS4)

Gather and synthesize information from books and other sources of information.

Key concepts: Scientific journals, text- and computer-based reference materials.

Real-world contexts: libraries, technical reference books, Internet, computer software.

Constructing (HS5)

Discuss topics in groups making clear presentations restating or summarizing what others have said, asking for clarification or elaboration, taking alternative perspectives and defending a position.

Key Concepts: logical argument, summary, clarification, elaboration, alternative perspectives.

Real-world contexts: newspaper or magazine articles discussing a topic of social concern.

Reflecting (HS1)

Justify plans or explanations on a theoretical or empirical basis.

Key concepts: aspects of logical argument, including evidence, fact, opinion, assumptions, claims, conclusions, observations.

Real-world contexts: any in the sections on Using Scientific Knowledge.

Reflection (HS2)

Describe some general limitations of scientific knowledge.

Key concepts: understanding of the general limits of science and scientific knowledge as constantly developing human enterprises; recognizing that arguments can have emotive, economic, and political dimensions as well as scientific.

Real-world contexts: any in the sections on Using Scientific Knowledge.